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DRUG INFORMATION CENTER
DEPT. OF CLINICAL PHARMACY

Name Question Answer
Satish Drug of choice for cold in pregnant woman? Dear sir thank you for using drugsquans. Depending on type of complication it can be advised, such as Dextromethorphan and Guaifenesin can be administered for treating cold during pregnancy. Oxymetazoline/xylometazolines can be suggested as nasal decongestants. But Phenylephrine and pseudoephedrine are contraindicated in pregnancy. Anti histamines are welcome if persistent sneezing, itchy and watery eyes are evidenced. Combinations with paracetamol/acetaminophen can be given in case of sore throat. But drugs should be administered only after consulting a gynaecologist or a practitioner. Regards /
Lalitha P S Gowda Drug induced pigmentation of skin .is this permanent ar not ?? Dear madam thank you for using drugsquans. Drug induced pigmentation of skin depends on the drug and its dose. Usually NSAIDs, anti malarial, amiodarone, cytotoxic drugs, tetracyclines, heavy metals and psychotropic drugs are known to be evidenced with pigmentation. Heavy metal and few antibiotic induced pigmentation are permanent while remaining are transient type. It may resolve if the drug is completely eliminated from the body. Regards /
Anjana Antony Does amiodarone induce hypothyroidism? dear Mrs. Anjana A thank you ffor using drugscans. yes Amiodarone causes hypothyroidism and it should be cautiously used in the same. /
Shafiya Farheen F How safe is Rosuvastatin? dear mrs.Shafiya thanks for using drugscans. can you be more specific with your question so we can aswer you effectively. like is rosuvastatin safe in a particular condition or is it better than the other statins? /
Ayana Mariya Can MINOXIDIL be used to treat chemotherapy induced alopoecia ? If so, in what concentration ? Dear Mrs Ayana M, thank you for using drugscans. yes studies hav shown that topical Minoxidil can delay chemotherpy induced alopecia and also help in faster hair growth. /
ALPHI THERES PHILIP which is more preferred-H2 receptor antagonist or proton pump inhibitors?Why? Dear Mrs Alphi, thank you using drugscans. these agents are given preference according to the need, severity of the diseases and ADR profile. /
Niranjan shakthi Is there any efficacious drug approved recently by FDA for migraine? Dear Mr. Niranjan S thank you for using drugscans. Yes,Fremanezumab-vfrm (Ajovy, Teva) is approved by FDA in Sep 2018, for the preventive treatment of migraine in adults Erenumab is another drug. /
Chippi kurian Can pyridoxine and levodopa be take toghter? Dear Mrs. Chippi K, thank you for using drugscans, pyriodoxine is shown to cause decrease in the plasma level of levodopa, and therby decreases the amount of levodopa reaching the brain which is necessary for its action in parkinsonism. /
Deena David Can diuretics induce insomnia? Dear Mrs. Deena, thank you for using drugscans. yes diuretics can cause insomnia but more like sleep disrupt. as there is an increased need for urinating and these drugs cause overwhelming thirst which doesnt allow them to sleep. /
Nidhimol issac Can methotrexate cause mood swings?How? Dear Mrs. Nidhi I, thank you for using drugscans. Methotrexate is shown cause mood changes in patients who are already predisposed to mood changes but very rarely. This reaction is ideosyncratic and may be related to the neurological side effects of Methotrexate. /
Anjana Antony How phenytoin cause osteomalacia? Dear Mrs.Anjana A, thank you for using drugscans. yes, Phenytoin can cause ostoemalacia as it reduces a form of Vitamin D (25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the body. This Vitamin D is essential for the absorption of Calcium. so the deficiency of calcium and Vitamin D leads osteomalacia and bone dystrophies. / / Dear Mrs.Anjana A, thank you for using drugscans. yes, Phenytoin can cause ostoemalacia as it reduces a form of Vitamin D (25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the body. this Vitamin D in essential for the absorption of Calcium. so the deficiency of calcium and Vitamin D leads osteomalacia and bone dystrophies. /
Anju George Can topiramate cause teratogenicity? How? Prevention. Dear Mrs.Anju, thank you for using drugscans, yes Topiramate causes harm to the unborn baby, a woman who is on topiramate for seizures should use proper birth control measures or if she wishes to conceive, should consult the physician about change medication for the control of seizures. /
Jesslun Jose Can diclofenac cause cardiac arrest?? Dear Mrs. Jesslun J, thank you for using drugscans. yes Diclofenac can cause cardiac arrest but rarely. /
Abiya Sam why should folic acid given along with methotrexate? Dear Mrs.Abiya, thank you for using drugscans. Methotrexate is drug which acts by inhibiting folic acid synthesis, so it is bound to cause peripheral neuropathy. hence it is prescribed along to avaoid peripheral neuropathy. /
Minnu George is there an increased risk of migraine for women who choose to take estrogen for menopausal symptoms? Dear Mrs. Minnu G, thank you for using drugscans. Migraine is affected by fluctuating estrogen levels with evidence to support estrogen 'withdrawal' as a trigger of menstrual attacks of migraine without aura, while high estrogen levels can trigger migraine aura /
Cliron Philip Roy what is PRCA? Dear Mr. Cliron P R, thank you for using drugscans, Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a condition in which the bone marrow stops making red blood cells, causing anemia as well as reticulocytopenia, which is the absence of young red cells. /
Smitha S is aranesp excreted in human milk dear Mrs.Smitha, thank you for using drugscans. Arnasep which is Derbapoetin alfa, is a drug used in severe anaemia caused by cancer therapy or chronic kidney diease. information is not available on whether it is excreted in breast milk or not. however the manufacturers suggest if it is administered in women who are breast feeding, caution should be exercised.it falls category B3. /
Akshata Shriyan Effect of Warfirin on calcium levels Dear Mrs. Akshata S, thank you for using drugscans. warfarin which is used as blood thinning agent has an effect of bone metabolism and predisposes the person using it to osteoporosis. /
chippi kurian what effects would haloperidol have on someone with Parkinson's disease? Dear Mrs. Chippi K, thanks for using drugscans, Haloperidol can worsen the symptoms of Parkinsonism and can have an interaction with many drug prescribed for the management of parkinsonism. hence it should be avoided in patients with parkinsonism. /
CRIS K TOM Can aspirin be used in acne management? Dear Mr.Cris K T, thank you for using drugscans. Aspirin which contains Salicylic acid, has drying effects that help get rid of excess oil and dead skin cells. It can help clear up acne and prevent new blemishes from forming. /
Zufriyath p c Is Amorolfine safe in Indian patients with tinea corporis? Dear Mrs. Zufriyath, thank you for using drugscans. Amorolfine is labelled drug for fungal infections affecting nails. tinea corporis is skin infection and the drug is known to cause adverse drug reactions that affect mainlu skin. /
AMAL B S why vitamin suppliments are given in diabetes? Dear MR. Amal, thank you for using drugscans. As Diabetes is known to peripheral neuropathy, which is a sensation of tingling and burning in the extremities, vitamins like B1 is prescibed to improve this. /
golda rajeevan Does aspirin helps in fertility? Dear Mrs.Golda, thank you for using drugscans. Aspirin is an antiinflammatory agent. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report that 12 percent of all U.S. women of reproductive age are unable to become pregnant. in some women chronic, low-grade inflammation may been previously associated with causes of infertility. hence experts have studied the low daily dose of Aspirin in women affcted by infertility and seen a positive result in 35% of the patients in whom chances of conception increased after taking Aspirin. so some fertility experts prescribe a low dose of aspirin daily to improve the chances of concepion. /
ANAS what is the treatment option for hair fall in youngsters induced by stress ? dear Mr, Anas K thank you for using drugscans, several factors are involved in the health of hair of a person like stress, anxiety, diet pollution, hormones and genetics. if stress alone is the reason for hair fall, stress releasing exercises and proper diet can help the hair fall. /
Libin benny what is the benefit of vitamin E supplements in thalessemia major? Dear Mr. Libin B, thank you for using drugscans,vitamin A and Vitamin C suppelements can help reduce the oxidative stress induced by multiple blood transusion in children with Thalessemia Major. /
Arlin george can lycopene be used for treatment of infertility in males? Dear Mrs. Arlin, thank you using drugscans. one of the reasons for infertility is oxidative stress. as lycopene acts as an antioxidant, studies have been conducted in human and animals to check its uses in infertility. Huans studies have shown shown improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. however it is not a labelled drug as more extensive research has to be done to determine the appropriate dose for the treatment. /
Ghazal can any drug which is used for kidney stone cause disturbance in hearing? Dear Mis Ghazal, thanks for using drugscans, the drugs which are usually used to treat kidney stones are, analgesics, to relieve the pain and for some obstructive infections, antibiotics are used. if aminoglycosides like gentamicin or amikacin are used , they are bound to cause hearing impairement. /
HAREESH BABU can oxytocin cause depression? Respected Sir, thank you for using the drugscans.oxytoccin is known to be linked with emotions like love, socia bonding and well being. recent animal studies have shown conflicting results as it is associated with negative memory strengthening and fear and anxiety in future stressful situations. Further data in humans have to be collected and studied to know to prove its association with Major Depressive Disorders. /
Dr.Thomas John Can u give me the composition of the drug pradaxa What is the dosage for adult What are indications for prescribing this drug Respected sir, Thanks for the question!! The Composition of Drug Pradaxa is dabigatran etexilate. Dabigatran etexilate is basically an oral anticoagulant. The recommended daily dose is 300 mg taken as one 150mg capsule twice daily. The primary indications are: 1. Prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in adult patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation 2. Treatment and prevention of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Thanking and regards, Iswar Hazarika Assistant professor Department of Pharmacology T John College of Pharmacy /
Khalida Khanum What are the latest treatments available for genetic disorder like Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Whom can we approach? Respected Madam, Thanks for the question!! Genetic disorders are due to gene changes that are present in essentially every cell in the body. Hence, these disorders often affect many body systems, and most cannot be cured. However, general approach for treating genetic disorders is to reduce or manage symptoms and to prevent complications. All the recent advancements in treatment of Genetic disorders like DMD are in pipeline of clinical research. They are: 1. Stem cell therapy 2. Gene therapy 3. Antisense oligonucleotide 4. Stop codon read through therapy 5. Growth factor pathways For the treatment of DMD Atalureu (available as TRANSLARNA) is the only drug approved by the European commission till date. Recommended daily dose is 40 mg/kg in two divided doses. Atalureu helps to produce the protein Dystrophin, which protects muscle wasting in DMD. We can approach a neurologist accompanied by physiotherapist, geneticist/genetic counselor and orthopedic surgeon. For DMD you can approach PLEXUS Neuro & stem cell research center, 174, D'Costa Layout;wheeler Road Extension, Cooke town, Bangalore-84 Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika and V Pharm D Team, T John College of Pharmacy/ /
Dr K Krupanidhi How do we understand when we are infected, whether it is bacterial or viral infection? Dear sir, Thanks for the question! It may be difficult to determine whether the infection is a bacterial or a viral just from the symptoms. However, we can predict from the following factors: 1. FEVER: Viral infection may or may not cause fever whereas bacterial illness cause high grade fever. 2. LOCATION: Viral infectious symptoms are seen in more than one part of the body whereas bacterial infections symptoms are site specific. 3. DURATION OF ILLNESS: Most viral illness last for 2 to 10 days but bacterial illness commonly will last longer than 10 days. 4. SPUTUM COLOR: Virus may produce clear or cloudy sputum. Bacteria causes colored sputum (yellow/green/bloody/brown-tinged) Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika and V Pharm D Team T John College of Pharmacy /
Shyam Raghavan What is the minimum amount of calories that should be consumed to maintain a healthy life by adults and children? Also can skipping a meal reduce weight? Dear Sir, Thanks for the question!! The minimum amount of calories required to eat each day depends on several factors including age, size, sex, lifestyle and overall general health. Not everybody requires the same amount of calories each day. National Health service (NHS) suggest that an average adult should consume not less than 18000 calories/day and children should consume not less than an average of 14000 calories/day to maintain constant weight. A skipped meal means skipped calorie leading to starvation response, wherein 1. Body tries to conserve energy by protecting its fat stores and instead use lean tissue or muscle to provide it with some of the calories it needs to keep functioning. 2. The fats are conserved by decreasing the LEPTIN level (a hormone that liberates stored body fat) and allowing fat cells to release a small proportion of energy in order to sustain the most basic bodily functions. 3. Body starts storing its nutrients in the fat deposit (calorie reservoir) than using it for energy. Hence, fat cells will increase in size than decreasing. Thereby, total body fat will increase. Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika & V Pharm D team, T John College of Pharmacy, Bangalore. /
Mintu H Can Ibuprofen and Aspirin be taken together? What precautions should we take to prevent any interactions? Dear Sir, Thanks for the question!! Aspirin and ibuprofen together cause a major interactions. Ibuprofen (reversible inhibitor) interact with aspirin (irreversible inhibitor) by competitive inhibition of acetylation site of platelet?s COX. Ibuprofen prevents the access and binding of aspirin on platelet site. Consequently, Ibuprofen inhibits the aspirin action to prevent thromboxane production and platelet aggregation. Thus, Ibuprofen reduces the effectiveness of aspirin, when taken to prevent heart attacks or stroke. Moreover, Combination of these medication may cause GI toxicity like gastric ulcers and bleeding. PRECAUTION: Patient receiving immediate release ASPIRIN + single dose of IBUPROFEN 400MG should not administer within 8 hour before or 2 hr after the aspirin dose. Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology & V Pharm D Team /
Dr Panner Selvam R What is the rational behind drugs banned in other countries still available in India? Dear Sir, Thanks for the question!! The availability or ban of a drug in a country completely depends upon the risk-benefit ratio of the drug on its population. If the adverse effects are severe or the risk of using the drug over weighs the benefits or if the drug is ineffective, the country may ban the drug or the drug company may itself voluntarily withdraw the drug from the market. Experts say that, this risk benefit ratio is content specific and dosage specific. So, while some countries would ban it, whereas other would continue with its usage based on its independent data studies. Some very common examples are: 1. Quinodochlor ?an anti-diarrheal drug is known to cause blindness among Japanese. This a phenomenon termed as pharmaco-ethnic variation of drug, but there is no logic to ban it in India as it?s banned in japan. 2. The popular painkiller analgin is being advocated to ban due to its side effect of causing bone marrow depression, but research conducted in Spain has shown that the incidence occurs is less than one per million per year. The data suggests that the risk increases with the duration of use, and it disappears 10 days after the last dose of the drug and this risk should be considered in comparison with other potentially life threatening adverse drug reaction of analgesics and NSAIDS. Such as GI bleeding, Hepatitis , blood-dyscrasia. Hence, the Indian government banned only the combinations of analgin with other drugs because such combinations were banned for being less safe than analgin by itself, without adding substantial benefit. Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology & V Pharm D Team /
sunny waine what is the use of opdivo medicine? Dear Sir, Thanks for the question!! Opdivo has the drug composition of nivolumab, which is an anti-cancer drug that works with immune system to interfere with the growth and spread of cancer cells in the body. It is used to treat a certain type of melanoma (skin cancer) that cannot be treated with surgery, or that has spread to other parts of the body. It is also used in the treatment of certain type of non-small cell lung cancer and advanced kidney cancer that has not responded to other cancer medicines. Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology & V Pharm D Team /
AKHIL what is the effectiveness of nimesulide+ diclofenac combination in NSAID based therapy Dear Akhil, Thanks for the question!! Nimesulide/diclofenac sodium combination is used for the treatment of acute pain,dysmennorhean,acute gout,thromboplebitis and osteoarthritis. Certain studies suggest that nimesulide does not interact with any of the NSAIDS in term of anti-inflammatory action but antagonizes the side effect on gastric tissue. Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology & V Pharm D Team /
Sruthi s why proponolol is more preffered in portal hypertension than any other b-blockers? Dear Sruthi, Propranolol is a non-selective beta blocker used as the first line agent in the treatment of portal hypertension. They act on both beta1 and beta2 receptors. Beta1 blockade decreases portal flow through a decrease in cardiac output; beta2 blockade decreases portal flow through splanchnic vasoconstriction via unopposed alpha-adrenergic activity. They reduce the hepatic vein pressure gradient (HVPG) to a greater extent than other beta blockers. The major advantage of using propranolol is its ability to treat variceal bleeding in the emergency condition; which is the main cause of mortality associated with liver cirrhosis. Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology & V Pharm D Team /
Mareena john which would be the most preffered antibiotic agent for UTI in patient with chronic liver disease? Dear Mareena, Thanks for the question!! The first choice of antibiotics for UTI in patient with chronic liver disease is cephalosporins(ceftriaxone 1g bd or tid) Or flouroquinolones( ofloxacin 500 mg bd. The second choice is Augmentin. Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology & V Pharm D Team / /
mareena why is pancreatic enzymes elevated only in acute pancreatitis but not in chronic pancreatitis? Dear Mareena, Thanks for the question!! Elevation in Serum amylase and Serum lipase are the confirmatory test for pancreatitis. Serum amylase levels rise first, typically within the first 24 hours from the disease onset, while lipase levels increase within the first 72 to 96 hours. Serum amylase and lipase levels may be slightly elevated in chronic pancreatitis but high levels are found only during acute attacks of pancreatitis. In the later stages of chronic pancreatitis atrophy of the pancreatic parenchyma can result in normal Serum enzyme levels because of significant fibrosis of the pancreas, resulting in decreased concentration of the enzymes within the pancreas. Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology & V Pharm D Team / /
sruthi s why is it important to give magnesium sulphate inj if the paatients lab.investigation reveals low Mg level? Dear Sruthi, Thanks for the question!! Abnormal magnesium level can cause potentially fatal complications like ventricular arrhythmia, coronary artery vasospasm or sudden death.Being the second most abundant intracellular cation, magnesium play many fundamental role in the body, like cellular energy metabolism, maintenance of electrolyte balance, cell replication, protein synthesis and has a crucial role for more than 300 enzyme driven biochemical reactions. Hence, for a patient with low magnesium levels ( hypomagnesemia) emergency correction with magnesium sulfate is in practice. Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology & V Pharm D Team / /
ALPHONSA T what is the role of albumin in human body?why is it important to give albumin for a patient with burns? what is the role of albumin in human body?why is it important to give albumin for a patient with burns?
Rhea ann What is the role of thiamine in alcoholic liver disease? Dear Rhea, Thanks for the question!! 80% of chronic alcoholics have low levels of thiamine (vitamin B12), which put the patient at an increased risk for Wernicke - Korsakoff syndrome. The mechanisms associated with this includes - inadequate dietary intake, reduced hepatic storage, decreased conversion of thiamine to activate co- enzyme or impaired thiamine absorption. Thus thiamine supplementation is recommended. Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology & V Pharm D Team /
ABDUL HASEEB WHY METOPROLOL IS GIVEN IN A PATIENT WHOSE HAVING LOW BP BUT UNDERWENT BT SHUNT? Dear Abdul, BT shunt is a palliative procedure done in neonates to overcome the blood flow defects in the pulmonary artery. Metaprolol is a beta blocker antihypertensive which have the effect of reducing HR, BP, and reduces the workload of the heart. This is commonly used after a cardiac surgery for two reasons: Firstly, it reduces high B.P after heart valve surgery to reduce the chances of bleeding and secondly it is used to reduce the incidence of an arrhythmias called atrial fibrillation. Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology & V Pharm D Team /
HARISH BABU what are the treatment options for drug induced hyperuricemia in TB? Dear Harish, Xanthine oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol and febuxostat are common drugs which are used to treat hyperuricemia induced by antiTB drugs. Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology & V Pharm D Team / /
Dr K Krupanidhi On the event of AIDS Day I want to know the status of HIV spreading in India, Dear Sir, India has the third highest number of people living with HIV in the world. The government of India estimates that about 2.4 million HIV patients are there with an adult prevalence of 0.31%. Children account for 3.5% of all infections. While 83% are in the age group of 15-49yr. Of all HIV infections 39% are among women.... Risk factors: several risk factors put india in danger of experiencing rapid spread of HIV if effective prevention and control measures are not scaled up through out the country. This include: a. Unsafe sex. b. Low condom use Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology & V Pharm D Team /
Naveen Sekar Sulfonylureas do not lower blood sugar level in type 1 diabetes. How ? Dear Naveen, Type 1 diabetes happens when the immune system destroys cells of pancreas called beta cells (cells responsible for insulin release). sulfonylureas act as antidiabetic agent by increasing insulin release from the beta cells in the pancreas. As in type 1 diabetes,there itself is a deficiency of beta cells, hence no production of insulin. So sulfonylureas are ineffective in type 1diabetes. Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology & V Pharm D Team /
Dr K Krupanidhi What are the precautions to be taken to over come cold - related diseases Dear sir, Some of the common winter or cold related diseases are Heart Attacks, Asthma Attacks, Itchy Skin, Joint Pain and Sinusitis. 1. Heart attacks:- As the temperature falls, the arteries become constricted making it difficult for the heart to pump the blood. Experts suggest, people over the age of 30 should avoid exhausting themselves in winter season. 2. Asthma:- The cold and dry air leads to tightening of airways and makes it even worse while breathing. Keep your homes smoke free as smoke can travel even through closed doors. Wash all your bed covers at least once a week. 3. Itchy Skin:- Cold temperature with low humidity result in winter itch. The best way to prevent yourself is by avoid eating oily street food, apply almond, coconut or olive oil on your skin to avoid flakes and drink tea made with jaggery. 4. Joint Pain:- One of the most common remedies to get relief from joint pains is keeping yourselves and your feet warm. Also, wear two or three pairs of thin clothing instead of one pair of heavy warm clothes. 5. Sinusitis:- Sinus problems occur when homes are closed and there is no proper ventilation. To stay clear of sinusitis this season, make sure you get enough rest, eat healthy and drink plenty of fluids to avoid catching a cold. Stay away from dust. Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology & V Pharm D Team /
Mr Sharath B How to be active in the winter season? Dear Sir, The best way to be active in the winter season are: 1. keep moving and do regular exercise 2. Body weight management. 3. Getting proper sleep. 4. Boost our immunity 5. stay hydratedand and 6. Keeping our skin healthy by using moisturizer. Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology & V Pharm D Team /
Mr Sharath B Which food is preferred in the winter season for good health. What are the precautions to be taken to over come diseases? Dear Sir, During winter people tend to eat more and exercise less. There are behavioral changes which includes feeling of hopelessness, lack of concentration,social withdrawal and fatigue. This condition is called seasonal affective disorder. Experts suggest that food consist of vitamin C,D , omega-3 fatty acids and lighter meals can help in the winter season. Precautions: 1. Have more food which contain vitamin C, it can help a healthy immune system and helping to decrease tiredness and fatigue. 2. Fill the kitchen with sun drenched foods. 3. Make meals lighter.4. Eat more foods rich in vitamin D. 5. Oatmeal and soup are more preferred to have in winter. 6. Exercise regularly.7. Get the right amount of sleep every night.8. Drink optimal amount of water.9. Keep stress to a minimum. Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology & V Pharm D Team /
Ruta Abera Alternative drug of choice for ceftraxone Dear Ruta, Ceftraxone comes under the class of cephalosporin antibiotics. Alternative treatment should be selected according to patient-specific parameters which include gram stain, culture sensitivity information.Previous infectious disease and antibiotics courses and patient medical history, including drug allergies.. Moreover the present underlying illness.. Thanks and regards, Iswar Hazarika, Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology & V Pharm D Team /